Angkor Wat – Angkorian Temple Dedicated to Vishnu
Angkor Wat (អង្គរវត្ត) is the world largest religious monuments which has been treated as the world’s most valuable heritage. Angkor Wat not only attractive to visitors around the world with its beauty, but also its perfection of construction architecture. Thus it has become Cambodia’s most preserved temple which attracted millions visitors every year. Angkor Wat represents the highest level of Khmer architecture and it has become a symbol of Cambodia, the only element appearing on the national flag of Cambodia.
Angkor Wat was built in the first half of the 12th century since the beginning of King Suryavarman II’s reign (1113-1150). It was built as his state temple and capital city. ‘Angkor Wat’ simply means ‘Temple of the capital’ which ‘Angkor’ is derived from Sanskrit meaning ‘city or capital’. ‘Wat’ is Khmer word for ‘temple’. Angkor Wat was originally built to dedicate to Hinduism, mainly Vishnu. It’s believed that Angkor Wat temple was designed by Divakarapandita, the chief adviser and minister of the king who was a Brahman with divine honors.
Angkor Wat’s orientation is different from other temples in the area which the main entrance is at the west, rather than the east. The bas reliefs are arranged for viewing from left to right which is a practice used in Hindu religious ceremonies for tombs. Because of this J.Przyluski, who studied about Angkor Wat, concluded that Angkor Wat is a tomb. For G. Ceodes, other researcher, claimed that Angkor Wat might be a tomb because of its main entrance is from the west, but Angkor Wat is no difference from other temple that it is the home of the king’s statue in the form of divinity. However, his conclusion was strongly claimed that Angkor Wat was funerary temple or mausoleum. In generally, Angkor Wat is accepted as a temple where the king worshiped to his Hindu gods and it was also a mausoleum for the king after his death.
Following the completion of decades-renovation project named as the world’s largest puzzle, the 11th century Baphuon temple was re-opened to the public on Jul 3, 2011 under a ceremony highly attended by Cambodian King Norodom Sihamoni and French Prime Minister Francois Fillon. We are as Cambodians would like to express our profound gratitude to France for completing the renovation project of Baphuon temple which had spent 10-million-euro funded by France.
Located at 400 meters northwest of Bayon temple, inside Angkor Thom, Baphuon temple was built in 1060 AD as the state temple of King Udayadityavarman II. Baphuon temple faces east in a direct line with the Elephant terraces at the north side, laying within a long enclosure of 425 m x 125 m, and borders the Royal Palace to the north. From the East entrance, Baphuon temple shapes like a big round mountain, while it’s a 37 meters mountain-temple (Prasat Phnom) with five levels. The fifth level height is 24 meters above the ground level. Each level had Gopuras at the cardinal points and has a corner tower at each sub-direction. Since it’s mountain shape, Baphuon was first built to symbolize mount Meru and house a Shivalinga for Hindu religious rituals of the King.
Zhou Da Guan, the Chinese diplomat who visited Angkor at the end of 13th century, has also described about Baphuon temple in his words that: ” North of the Golden Tower (Bayon Temple) at a distance of about two hundred yards, rises a Tower of Bronze, and even higher than the Golden Tower, a truly astonishing spectacle, with more than ten chambers at its base.”
According to the stone inscription found around the temple said that, King Udayadityavarman II had constructed a golden mountain in the middle of his capital, and built a gold temple on it to house Shiva linga.
As long as we step in the temple from the east entrance, we would feel this temple is extremely unique from others. Visitors would walk on a raised causeway toward the temple. The raised causeway is supported by round pillars arranged in three rows, each row has 125 pillars and each pillars was made from a piece of big stone, without any joint. The whole causeway measures 172 meter, and about one meter raised from the ground. Walking on the raised causeway, though it’s just one meter high, I have got the feeling of great pleasure, in which I’m in a high position or a special person who have been admired or respected. The feeling of congratulating from people around who were walking on the ground.
Phnom Kulen Attracts All Visitors Who Arrived Siem Reap
Kulen Mountain or Phnom Kulen (ភ្នំគូលែន) is currently an attractive tourist and historical site in Siem Reap, Cambodia. It locates at about 30 km distance from Angkor Wat. “Kulen” is Khmer word means “lychee”, so “Phnom Kulen” means “ mountain of lychees”.
According to Khmer history, Phnom Kulen has been related to the history of creating Angkor Era. The first king of Khmer Empire was Jayavarman II (802-850), who was liberated the two Chenla from the rule of Java and reunited the countries into one kingdom, Khmer Empire.
In the mission of reunite the kingdom, King Javavarman II has moved from place to place around the country and thus his capital has always been changed. It’s said that he first stayed at Sambhupura (present day Kratie province), then moved to Kote (northern Tonle Sap Lake), Indrapura (Banteay Preinokor, Kampong Cham), Amarendrapura (the western of the West Baray), Mahendrapavata (Phnom Kulen), and his last capital was Hariharalaya (Rolous, Siem Reap).
Mahendrapavata (Phnom Kulen) was a sacred place for worshiping since the time of Jayavarman II, and now it’s till be. It was a place that king Jayavarman II worshipped to Lord Shiva and performed the Devaraja Ceremony, the ceremony that crown the king to be Lord of Universe.
Phnom Kulen is an isolated chain of small mountain plateaux lying south of the Dong Rek Mountain. Its highest point is 487m. Geologically, Phnom Kulen is formed of sandstone and it was an important quarry to get standstone for temple building during Angkor era.
Phnom Kulen has been set as a National Park which is also a natural recreational, tourist and historical site which allow visitors to enjoy. It has been added to UNESCO World Heritage on Sep, 1st 1992 in the cultural category.
Research has proved that Phnom Kulen has been occupied since 8th century and has been a holy mountain for Hindu in Angkor era, after it was the place for king Jayavarman II performing Devaraja ceremony. Until now it’s still the sacred area for Buddhists to worship as well.
Main Sites for Tourist to Visit at Phnom Kulen
Wat Preah Ang Thom
It’s a Buddhist monastery built since 16th century on the hill top of Phnom Kulen. “Preah Ang Thom” means “Large Buddha”. The site has got its name because there is a large statue of 8m high Reclining Buddha carved out from a huge sandstone boulder. The shrine is very narrow, just enough for the statue. Cambodians who visit Phnom Kulen always come to worship at Wat Preah Ang Thom as it’s well known for sacredness. Especially at the weekend and publicholidays, there always very crowded.
At this site, there is also one Buddha Footprint (Preah Bat Chorn Tuk) similar to the one at Phnom Bakheng.
At the foot of the hill, there are many stores selling souvenirs for visitors. Also there are food stores selling lunch, the taste and price are reasonable.
One Thousand Lingas
Thousand of lingas and yoni figures were carved into the sandstone river bed. It was a celebration to turn the waterfall to be holy in Angkor period. Because here is the upper stream, and the water keep flowing to the currently waterfall and finally flow into Siem Reap river.
The water which running across the lingas is considered to be holy. Local visitors come to wash their face or even drink it for good blessings. Some people bottled the water home for family members who couldn’t come.
Terrace of Preah Ang Sdach Kum Lung
The field for car parking when you visit One Thousand Lingas, is the called the Terrace of Preah Ang Sdach Kum Lung. At the center of the site, a base of a small brick tower can be found. It was originally a shrine of a sacred indigenous deity, Preah Ang Sdach Kum Lung, which until now Khmer people still worship him. A statue of Preah Ang Sdach Kum Lung is located in Phnom Penh, in front of Wat Ounalom.
For most visitors who come again and again to Phnom Kulen are to enjoy bathing waterfall. It’s the most attractive reason for local visitors to Phnom Kulen.
There are two waterfall at Kulen mountain, one small with 4-5 m high, diameter of 20-25 m. And one big with 15-20 m high, diameter of 10-15 m. Around the site, there are wooden huts arranged for visitors to sit and have lunch. Of course, we must order foods from huts owner or we have to pay the hut renting fee.
It’ recommended to allow one full day visiting Phnom Kulen, so that you can enjoy bathing waterfall and eating foods of rural flavor, especially roasted chicken. At around 3pm, visitors should prepare going back, because it’s difficult to drive along the forest when it’s nearly dark.
The 100-Pillar Preah Vihear Thom
Preah Vihear Sosor Mouy Roy or The 100-Pillar Preah Vihear Thom locates on the eastern part of the Mekong River bank in Sambor commune, Sambor district, Kratie Province (36km from Kratie provincial). It’s one of important tourism and cultural sites of the province which attracted many visitors every year. If we just spend time seeing the views around the site, we might feel that the trip is not special. But whenever we learned about the story related to the site told by tourist guide or the elders in the Wat, will make your visit become more interesting. Because this site contain a legend or could be a real story had happened in the past. Beside the 100-Pillar Viheara, within the site there is a stupa containing remains of a princess which was a daughter of a Khmer King in the 16th century. Everything at the site that is exist now are related to a story as below.
History of 100-Pillar Preah Vihear Thom
Preah Ang Chan Reachea or Preah Ang Chan I was a Khmer King who reigned from 1516 until 1566. He was the builder of Longvek City (currently become a commune in Kampong Chhnang province, about 70 km from Phnom Penh). Preah Ang Chan Reachea has been regarded as the most capable King among the kings reigned after Angkor period.
Preah Ang Chan Reachea has a beautiful and lovely daughter named Vorpheak, but she was well known among the citizens as Preah Neang Krapum Chhouk (Lotus Princess). There was once the king had asked the royal prophet to predict the fate of the princess. The prophet claimed that her life would be in danger after her 16th birthday, she would be killed by a crocodile.
One day at her 16 years old, she became very sick which there is no one can cure. Now the king again invited the royal prophet to help him finding the best healer who can help his daughter out of illness. The royal prophet suggested to set up a group of people to walk from place to place around the kingdom while beating drums. If there is someone ask question about the drum beating sound, then that person is capable of curing the illness of Vorpheak princess.
Looking for a Capable Healer
After many days of searching for the best healer, finally when the royal delegation group arrived Wat Neaksen (locates in Chroy Banteay commune, Prek Prasob district, Kratie province), there was a monk questioned them of why they were beating drums. After listened to them, the monk agreed to go with them to the royal palace.
The monk was the head-monk of Wat Neaksen, so before leaving for the royal palace, he called all his disciple monks to leave some words with them. Nen Thun was his beloved principle, so the head-monk give him the key to his room and told him to clean the room as well as take good care of all his belongings, especially one special cabinet which he didn’t allow to open.
Nen Thun Didn’t Obey His Master’s Words
Because of curiosity, as soon as the head-monk left, Nen Thun opened the special cabinet and found a bible which described special method of disguising oneself into various types of animal. He found it’s very interesting and have tried the method of becoming a crocodile.
Nen Thun Tried What He Has Learned
Many days later, Nen Thun wanted to try the method which he had learned in front of the other monks in the Wat. Nen Thun talked to the young monks that whenever he became a crocodile, they must beat his head using a kind of carrying tool made by bamboo called dang rek, so that he would return to the form of human. So he tried and succeed. But then, the monks told him that the crocodile which he transformed was too small, and they challenge him to make a bigger one. Nen Thun agreed to try again, this time, the crocodile was very much bigger than a common crocodile. Because it’s too big, all the young monks were frightened and ran away, so no one stay to help Nen Thun returning to human form.
Nen Thun, in the form of the crocodile, then jumped into the river nearby and was thinking of what to do so that he could become a human being. Many times he tried to approached the bank looking for help, but no one dared to be near him. He knew that the head-monk could help him but only within 7 days. But it’s was over 7 days now so he stayed in the river waiting for the head-monk to return.
Upon the head-monk’s return, he learned about Nen Thun, his beloved principle. He called Nen Thun to meet him and said: it’s too late to help you to become a human being now. But I give you the magic power, so you are more powerful then a normal crocodile.
Nen Thun Become a Vehicle for His Master
After the first time healing, the princess did not fully recover yet, so the head-monk was invited again to the royal palace. This time, instead of taking the boat sent by the King, the head-monk used his own transport. Since Nen Thun has become a crocodile he has become his master’s vehicle. So this trip to the royal palace, the head-monk ride on the crocodile.
It took many days for each time’s curing. While his master was staying in the royal palace, Nen Thun was living under the royal residence port. It was very bored for him, so he thought of return to the Wat visiting his young-monk friends.
One day, the head-monk took a bath in the river nearby the royal port. Nen Thun came near him and offered a ride around the port. Because he was thinking of going to the Wat, Nen Thun took this chance and started to swim toward Wat Neaksen while the head-monk didn’t notice.
The fight between Nen Thun and Neak Ta crocodile
On his way back in the Mekong River, Nen Thun met another powerful Neak Ta crocodile at Phnom Sopor Kaley (currently locates in Prek Prasob district, Kratie province). The Neak Ta crocodile saw Nen Thun and wanted to have a fight, so it run after him. Nen Thun didn’t want to fight, he tried to swim faster to escape. But the Neak Ta crocodile didn’t give up, until Nen Thun decided to take the fight. However, his master was on his back, he decided to swallow him to protect him while fighting, and he was permitted to do so.
The fight lasted for seven days and seven nights. Both crocodiles showed considerable strength in fighting each other. The fight was surprised many people, they came to witness it along the river bank. At last, the Neak Ta crocodile was defeated. Nen Thun was hurry to continue his trip to the Wat. On arrived, he regurgitated his master, but unfortunately, he died.
Nen Thun was said to be a murderer
The monks and the villagers were sorrowful because of the lose of their most respectful master. Nen Thun had never thought that swallowing his master could lead to his death, he was just afraid that his master might fall from his back during the fight. Apart from feeling hurt, Nen Thun was blamed by the monks and villagers.
Nen Thun did not accept that it was his mistake that caused his master died. He started to consider for what is the real causes. In the end, he concluded that it was because of the princess. If the head-monk did not go to cure the sickness of the princess, this incident would never happened. Thought so, Nen Thun decided to take revenge by killing the princess.
The Revenge of Nen Thun
When he reached the royal port, Nen Thun hid himself and waited for a good chance. After recovered from her sickness, Vorpheak wanted to take bath in the river. But the King did not allow, because it was predicted that her life would be ended in the river by a crocodile. Anyway, after too much insisted, the King gave his permission. He ordered the entourage to fence off part of the river for the princess to bath in the mean of offering security.
Unfortunately for the princess, Nen Thun was already under the port before they fenced the area. The day he waited so long has arrived. As long as the princess went into the water, Nen Thun rushed toward her and swallowed her. He then broke the fence and escaped.
The King was very shocked and extremely angry. He asked the royal prophet to find ways getting back his daughter and kill the crocodile. The royal prophet suggested to make a praying ceremony and floating the magic kantong (a container make of banana leaves in cone-shape). The kantong will show them where was the crocodile, if the crocodile stopped, it stop, and if the crocodile moves, the kantong also moves.
The Journey of Seeking for Nen Thun
The royal soldiers taking boats after the kantong from place to place. The King has also taken a boat to search for his daughter. Started from the royal port on the Tonle Sap River, the kantong floated against the flow of the Mekong River. As directed by the kantong, they found the crocodile at Prek Chhlong (a branch of Mekong River). The soldiers tried to use various tool to caught the crocodile, but he was big and powerful, so he escaped again into the Mekong River.
People tried to used bamboo to block the crocodile from moving further in some points of the Mekong River, but the fence couldn’t stop Nen Thun. There are many places were named after the events of people tried to catch Nen Thun and his subsequent escapes. Those names are still using until today such as: Kampi, Prek Char Thnoal, O’pak, Koh Sampor, etc.
Finally, Nen Thun was exhausted for travelling a long distance to escape from rivers to lakes and even crawling through the land. He ended up staying in Lumpors, a deep and long lake. The King order his soldiers dive into the water and chase out the crocodile, when he appeared on the water surface with his mouth open, the soldiers threw coconuts into his mouth, so that he could not bite and then caught him alive.
At this moment, the royal prophet said the princess could be alive if the crocodile were allowed to regurgitate her. The King was so upset and died to see his daughter. He did not care about what the royal prophet said, he ordered to cut the crocodile’s belly and take the princess out. As long as the dead body of the princess was taken out, her body was till warm enough. Now it was too late for the King to regret.
Vorpheak princess was cremated at Lumphat, the ceremony was prepared under the royal standard. The King decided to use the crocodile skin to make a funeral flag to signaling that his daughter was killed by the crocodile. Even though the crocodile flag has been used for the funerals since Buddha’s time, but the incident happened in Preah Ang Chan Reachea’s time has reinforced the practices in Khmer society and it has been maintained until today. We would see a white cloth made into the shape of a crocodile, hanging in front of which house is having a funeral.
Seeking for The Place to Enshrined the Remains of the Princess
For seeking the destined place to enshrined the remain of princess Vorpheak, the King using kantong floating along the river. It’s believed that the suitable place would bring peace to her soul as well as bring happiness to her relative who are living. The kantong floated down the river and has finally stopped at Sambor village. So this place was selected to build a stupa for princess Vorpheak. The stupa made of bricks which are larger and longer than the bricks in the present day.
According to the inscription in front of the stupa said that it was built in 1529 and enshrined princess Vorpheak’s remains as well as many other royal relatives included the later Kings after Preah Ang Chan Reachea such as:
- Barom Reachea V or Satha I, grand son of Preah Ang Chan, (1576-1595)
- Chey Chetha I (1586-1594)
- Preah Reach Samphea Chao Ponhea To or Thomareachea II (1629-1634)
The incription also added that the stupa had been renovated in 1955 by HRH Norodom Sihanouk and inaugurated on April 30, 1956.
The Construction of the 100-Pillar Preah Vihear Thom
Beside the stupa, Preah Ang Chan Reachea also built a ceremony shelter next to it. It was built consisting of 100 pillars with thatch roofing. It is said that 100 of princess Vorpheak’s virgin maids voluntarily committed suicide to take care of her by having each of their souls embedded into the 100 pillars. The royal prophet (known as Ta Tos) and the highest military commander Ta Kbal Prambei also committed suicide to protect her. During that time, the ceremony shelter was named Preah Vihear Thom, and later was renamed as 100-pillar Preah Vihear Thom.
Not so long after that, the 100-pillar Preah Vihear Thom was badly burned by a thunderstorm, 28 pillars were destroyed. The Budha statue inside this viheara was also some how damaged and it was totally damaged during the Khmer Rouge period.
Later on, the 100-Pillar Preah Vihear Thom was completely rebuilt. It has 116 concrete pillars with beautiful design. The efforts are from the Wat’s monks, the villagers, people from around the country as well as from oversea, and the leaders of the Royal Government of Cambodia.The new built viheara was inaugurated on January 14, 1997.
Preah Vihear Temple – UNESCO World Heritage Site in Cambodia
Preah Vihear Temple is one of the most significant Angkorian Temples in Cambodia. It’s also become the symbol and pride of Cambodia like Angkor Wat Temple in Siem Reap as well. The original name of Preah Vihear Temple was Sri Kirisvara, the name of Shiva linga which was dedicated in the main sanctuary of the mountain top. Despite the dispute over the ownership of the temple between Cambodia and Thailand, Preah Vihear Temple has been listed as UNESCO World Heritage Site on July 7th 2008.
How to Access Preah Vihear Temple
Preah Vihear Temple is located in Preah Vihear Province (the province has its name after Preah Vihear Temple), in northern of Cambodia which is now the border of Cambodia and Thailand.
My Weekend at Kirirom National Park
Kirirom was the first official designated national park and has become the protected area together with Bokor National Park, Kep National Park, and Ream National Park under the Royal Decree by King Norodom Sihanouk dated November 01, 1993. The area has several mountain ranks and contains many small lakes and waterfalls. Because of the natural view of Kirirom, the place became a popular weekend getaway site for people from Phnom Penh city.
Kirirom National Park locates 112 km from Phnom Penh city, the park cover an area of 35.000 hectares which mostly are within Kampong Speur province. Kirirom Mountain (its common name) is about 675 m high, has got its name as KIRIROM in the 1930s by King Sisovath Monivong. The name can be translated as the Mountain of Joy, while Kiri means mountain and Rom mean pleasure. However, the area has its ancient name as Phnom Vorvong Sorvong which refered to the two mountains associated with a Khmer legend. After it has become National Park, the official name is Preah Soramrit Kosamak Kirirom National Park.
The attraction of Kirirom is its natural beautiful scenery well known pine forest which made it unique from other hills in Cambodia. The high of the mountain made it has got a cooler weather in which suitable for pine trees to grow. I’ve been to Kirirom National Park many times in the 2000s. But today I visit it again after six years and this time I was a driver.
Leaving Phnom Penh for about 112 km, at your right, there is a sign board to turn. It’s easy to recognize as there are many houses and vendors selling drinks and fruits along the road. After turn right there is a small local market which visitors can buy their foods for lunch from here. Or they can buy it when they have reached the waterfall on the mountain.
After the turn from the national road 4, I spent one and half hour to drive up the mountain. The road up there was constructed in the reign of King Sihanouk when he built his summer rest house on the mountain top. The road is still in good condition until today, only some places has damaged.
At the mountain foot are fruit farms of papaya, mango, jackfruit, dragon fruit, and many others. Visitors can enjoy taking some pictures of those fruit trees too. Especially, from here we can have a nice picture of Kirirom Mountain in the whole. After passing the farms, we started the journey into the forest. Both sides of the road are forest trees and we mostly driving in the shade. We felt that we’re really in the jungle as cicadas on the trees kept singing loudly as if to welcome all of us to their home. After sometimes we see part of forest get burned. During the hot season, fire might be started because of the hot weather. During the raining season all nature are especially green which created pleasure when we be in it. However, today we also can see new green leaves growing out from branches; it was raining a few days ago. After a while, we stop and get off the care to take some pictures. There are several hills connected together, so stand on one hill we can have another one as the background of our pictures.
There is a newly built recreation center on half way to the top. They have various games and offer rooms to stay overnight.
There are two Buddhist monastery built on the mountain, we can also spend a visit and make praying. Later on we see some houses of villagers at the road sides, only several family live here.
The appearance of the pine trees let us know that we are at a higher level of mountain. They are growing straight and high into the sky on the hills along the road. Driving further, pine trees are in lines adorn our path, it’s a great natural view.
Before we reach the waterfall, we must pass a quite hard road of some km. It was Sunday and we can see about 30 cars at the parking place. Many thatch roofed huts are built for rent to visitors. The owners also offer foods and drinks. There are other vendors selling local snacks and cakes, however, it’s very few compare to Oudong Mountain.
In the last few years, most people visit Kirirom on purpose to bath the waterfall. But today, the water are not clean enough for bathing. Because in dry season the water is less and the flow is weak. So after lunch, we just spend time to walk around in the nature under pine trees.
The previous Royal rest house was damaged during the Khmer Rouge regime. Then it was renovated and functions as a museum. But today we don’t have time to visit there, so we don’t have picture for you.
We drive off the mountain at 3pm and the way down is somehow faster than when we climb up. It was a great holiday for us to spend time with nature at Kirirom National Park. We surely come back after sometime, maybe in this coming raining season to enjoy the waterfall.
Wat Kien Svay Krao Tourism Site
Kien Svay is a popular site for weekend getaway for locals, especially people from Phnom Penh city. Located on the national road no.1 Kien Svay is about 19 km from Phnom Penh. A sign for Kien Svay is installed at the road to turn on the left. It’s written ‘WAT KIEN SVAY KRAO TOURISM SITE’. Though the sign is quite big, but it’s easy to miss for first time visitors, so drive slowly and watch for the sign. Turn left at the sign and follow the road along the enclosure wall of Wat Kien Svay Krao, just a short distance you will arrive the parking place and the small market selling foods for visitors.
Kien Svay is crowed at the weekends while the week days having few visitors. You might visit Kien Svay on the week days if you prefer to be peaceful, however, the market also having fewer sellers.
Kien Svay is very good for relaxing and getting some fresh air of the countryside. Many thatched huts built on stilts along the river bank are for rent to visitors. The vendors of these huts also offer all kinds of Cambodian foods, but you can pack you own foods from home or buy from the market nearby which will have a wide range of options.
The local market selling many kind of foods included grilled chicken, grilled fish, fried fish, frog, snail, prohok dot (grilled prohok), and many kinds of local pickle. Cakes, snacks, and fruits and vegetables are very fresh as well. All of these are products of Kien Svay district. Visitors enjoy buying foods for having lunch here and buy more fruits and vegetables back home.
When it’s public holidays in Cambodia, Kien Svay is even more crowed then the weekend. People enjoy shopping in Kien Svay countryside market for fresh fruits, vegetables, and their favorite foods and snacks. Then they having lunch in the thatched huts and stay relaxing by sleeping in the hammock or enjoy playing cards and other games until late afternoon.
Some visitors also enjoy swimming. Boat are available for visitors who want to travel on the river, the price is about USD3.00 per hour.
One important notice for visitors is whatever service or product you want to buy, you must ask for the price and bargain before hand, if not you might have to pay a bill with big amount of money which is much more over of what it should be. Many visitors vowed not to go to Kien Svay again since they’ve met this problem.